Parmenides, Theaetetus, Phaedrus c. Transmission of Plato’s Works Except for the Timaeus, all of Plato’s works were lost to the Western world until medieval times, preserved only by Moslem scholars in the Middle East. In Henri Estienne whose Latinized name was Stephanus published an edition of the dialogues in which each page of the text is separated into five sections labeled a, b, c, d, and e. The standard style of citation for Platonic texts includes the name of the text, followed by Stephanus page and section numbers e. Scholars sometimes also add numbers after the Stephanus section letters, which refer to line numbers within the Stephanus sections in the standard Greek edition of the dialogues, the Oxford Classical texts. Other Works Attributed to Plato a. Spuria Several other works, including thirteen letters and eighteen epigrams, have been attributed to Plato. These other works are generally called the spuria and the dubia. The spuria were collected among the works of Plato but suspected as frauds even in antiquity.

Buddha (c. 500s B.C.E.)

The religious basis of calendars around the world: There are many religious calendars in existence, but each is normally in use in one region of the world — typically by followers of a single religion. Almost all of the world’s religious calendars are based on religion, astrology, or myth:

The Problem with Setting Bible Historical Dates. INDEX: * , , , or BCE? * How Long Was Jerusalem Destroyed? * When Did Cyrus Issue His Proclamation for .

Early Bronze Age Greek Pottery c. Meanwhile, in the Cyclades southern Greek islands new forms of pottery included Sesklo ware, which incorporated geometric decoration with incised spirals and maritime motifs. Cretan pottery also had geometric designs: Early Minoan shapes included high-spouted jugs and long-spouted drinking vessels, not unlike tea-pots. Middle Bronze Age Greek Pottery c.

Typically a uniform grey colour, Minyan ware was the first type of Greek pottery made on a potter’s wheel, and was therefore quicker and cheaper to produce. In the islands, the handmade pottery tradition continued with rectilinear designs in lilac or black on a white surface. But the finest ceramics were produced in Crete during the flowering of the Minoan Protopalatial period BCE , when the great palaces of Knossos and Phaistos were built.

Myths & Facts

Interpreting the Historical Buddha a. Dates There is no complete agreement among scholars and Buddhist traditions regarding the dates of the historical Buddha. From the middle of the 19th century until the late 20th century, Western scholars had believed the dates of the Buddha to be ca. Gombrich , between B. Sarao , between ca. Bechert , B.

Buddha (c. s B.C.E.) The historical Buddha, also known as Gotama Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, and Buddha Śākyamuni, was born in Lumbini, in the Nepalese region of Terai, near the Indian border.

Anno Domini The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, [15] and the practice of not using a year zero.

The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as “Vulgar Era” [e] to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar from those of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae [f] discovered so far was in a book by Johannes Kepler. Thus, “the common era of the Jews”, [34] [35] “the common era of the Mahometans”, [36] “common era of the world”, [37] “the common era of the foundation of Rome”.

Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage. Others have taken a different approach. People of all faiths have taken to using it simply as a matter of convenience. There is so much interaction between people of different faiths and cultures — different civilizations, if you like — that some shared way of reckoning time is a necessity. And so the Christian Era has become the Common Era. English language expert Kenneth G.

Emperors of India

South of this lies Babylonia , named after the city of Babylon. However, in the broader sense, the name Mesopotamia has come to be used for the area bounded on the northeast by the Zagros Mountains and on the southwest by the edge of the Arabian Plateau and stretching from the Persian Gulf in the southeast to the spurs of the Anti-Taurus Mountains in the northwest.

As a result of the slow flow of the water, there are heavy deposits of silt, and the riverbeds are raised. Consequently, the rivers often overflow their banks and may even change their course when they are not protected by high dikes. In recent times they have been regulated above Baghdad by the use of escape channels with overflow reservoirs.

The extreme south is a region of extensive marshes and reed swamps, hawr s, which, probably since early times, have served as an area of refuge for oppressed and displaced peoples.

Web site policies Menu Controversy over the use of the “CE/BCE” and “AD/BC” dating notation. Sponsored link. Overview: Unfortunately, “CE” has two unrelated meanings.

Through the centuries, Bible students and scholars alike have been trying to establish dates for the events described in the Bible so that a link can be made to the second coming of Jesus and the Battle of Armageddon. As the result, some have focused on the first destruction of Jerusalem as a reference point, setting its date as BCE. How did they arrive at this date? However, popular historical dating sets the destruction of Jerusalem at or BCE.

And this is what the argument is about. So, which if any of these dates is correct? It all depends on which source you consider to be the most correct, secular dating, Biblical chronology, or prophetic dating.

Abraham and the Chronology of Ancient Mesopotamia

Anno Domini The year numbering system used with Common Era notation was devised by the Christian monk Dionysius Exiguus in the year to replace the Era of Martyrs system, because he did not wish to continue the memory of a tyrant who persecuted Christians. Bede also introduced the practice of dating years before what he supposed was the year of birth of Jesus, [16] and the practice of not using a year zero.

The term “Common Era” is traced back in English to its appearance as ” Vulgar Era” to distinguish dates on the Ecclesiastic calendar in popular use from dates of the regnal year , the year of reign of a sovereign, typically used in national law. The first use of the Latin term vulgaris aerae [e] discovered so far was in a book by Johannes Kepler. Thus, “the common era of the Jews”, [35] [36] “the common era of the Mahometans”, [37] “common era of the world”, [38] “the common era of the foundation of Rome”.

Furthermore, several style guides now prefer or mandate its usage.

Chapter 1: Israel’s Roots. The Jews have no claim to the land they call Israel. Palestine was always an Arab country. The Palestinians are descendants of the Canaanites and were in Palestine .

Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like China , it seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meru , the only one inhabited with humans identical to us. The only question was how much of it was taken up by India. Indeed, India was once an island in the Mesozoic Ocean, but it moved north and collided with Asia. In Chinese, we get various ways of referring to India. The modern form, , renders the name phonetically with characters of no particular semantic significance “print, stamp, or seal” and “a rule, law, measure, degree”.

The older practice, however, was dedicated characters that might have a larger meaning. Thus, we get or , in which can be a kind of bamboo but otherwise is just used for India. Thus we get expressions like , “Sanskrit,” , “Sanskrit characters. The rule of the Sult. The supremely foreign unification of India, of course, was from the British, under whom India achieved its greatest unity, although that was lost upon independence to the religious division between India and Pakistan.

Plato (427—347 B.C.E.)

The Catholics made purely theological arguments as to why Jesus Christ had to have existed “in the flesh” None of these points are meant to stand on their own, but collectively they provide a very strong argument against the story of Jesus Christ being based on a real person. It is important to note that we have one, and only one, source of information about the life of Jesus and that is the Christian Gospels.

The Gospels are the sole source of information about this figure; everything that we “know” about “him” depends on these sources.

History of the use of BCE, CE, AD, BC to identify dates. So, unless one is a lion, a Buddhist, or student of ancient Roman civilization, the basis for 1 CE and 1 BCE remains an arbitrary selection.

A large number of bones have been recovered from caves at Atapuerca , Burgos , which come from sediments that are at least , years old. Other important sites are at Torralba and Ambrona Soria , where elephants Palaeoloxodon antiquus were trapped accidentally in marshy ground and their remains scavenged. From those sites were excavated shouldered points fashioned from young elephant tusks as well as hundreds of stone implements hand axes, cleavers, and scrapers on flakes, made from chalcedony, quartzite, quartz, and even limestone and wooden objects.

Pieces of charcoal show that fire was known and used. AtapuercaCave in Atapuerca, northern Spain. The appearance of modern humans H. Flint tools became more varied and smaller, and bone and antler were used for harpoons, spears, and ornaments. Needles from El Pendo Cave Cantabria hint at sewn clothing of furs and skins. Most remarkable were the intellectual achievements, culminating in the Paleolithic Old Stone Age caves found in the Cantabrian Mountains of northern Spain.

Those caves were painted, engraved, and sculpted and visited intermittently between 25, and 10, bce. Predators such as bears, wolverines, and lions are rarely represented, and depictions of humans are extremely scarce. Many caves such as the group of caves at El Castillo, Cantabria show rows of coloured dots, arrowlike marks, negative impressions of human hands, and signs interpreted as vulvas.

Common Era

Abraham, Mesopotamia, Ebla, Ancient Chronology, Sodom and Gomorrah Introduction Mesopotamia was one of the earliest regions to be inhabited after the great Flood, and it was here that Abraham lived his early life. Although not nearly as popular in the account of the patriarchs as Egypt, Mesopotamia is an important topic for any who undertake research into the historical background of the book of Genesis. This paper will examine the chronological data known from early Mesopotamia and will attempt to find the historical background of Abraham and the events during his life.

This current study will not look at the pre-Abrahamic period as this would go beyond the scope of this article. Instead, by placing Abraham into Mesopotamian history it will allow creationists to have an anchor point to study the rich pre-Abrahamic period and have a better understanding of the development of civilization after the Tower of Babel.

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world’s most widely used calendar era. BCE (Before the Common Era / Before the Current Era) is the era before and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian AD and BC system. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD (anno Domini, “[the] year of [the] Lord”) and BC (“before Christ”). “). Since the two notation systems.

.

Dating of Rama – 12:30 pm, 10 Jan, 5114 BCE