He has been an important person and friend in my life and that’s how we will remain moving forward. It has a total of million euros intotal liabilities, including a revolver bond of millioneuros maturing in November next year. By all rights we should be dead; a single vacuum tube in free fall happened to hold a charge and world war III didn’t start. But the many worlds interpretation insists that it did, in fact, discharge; and that the bomb did go off. It’s precisely the fact that we can’t perceive alternate realities that forces us to perceive this one, the one in which that bomb didn’t explode. We only perceive this branch of reality because the alternative is zero perception.
Service Contracts: Current State and Future Directions
GWD-R draft-ggf-ogsi-gridservice October 4, implements a particular service description, or to find a factory that can create instances with a particular service description. The service description is meant to capture both interface syntax, as well as in a very rudimentary, non-normative fashion semantics. Interface syntax is, of course, described by portTypes. Semantics may be inferred through the name assigned to the portType.
Formal Specification of Web Service Contracts for Automated Contracting and Monitoring Steffen Lamparter Institute AIFB Universität Karlsruhe (TH).
Search What Belongs in a Service Contract? In the hundreds of conversations that ZapThink has had in the past year, we have recognized a clear, decisive pattern of organizations moving toward SOA and away from the tightly-coupled, brittle integration approaches of yesterday. The eventual move to SOA is fast becoming a fait accompli. In the midst of this decisive move toward SOA, we are now starting to get more difficult, tactical questions about how to implement SOA.
Some questions are organizational in nature, while many others are technical. The questions generally focus on the core issues of SOA. Many questions center on how to build a Service. In particular, the question many architects are asking us now is what exactly goes in the Service contract. For each interaction between these two parties, one provides some combination of data and functionality and the other consumes it.
Before the provider can provide whatever the Service offers, however, the two parties must come to an agreement, or contract, that specifies the details of the Service the provider is performing. Essentially, the contract loosely couples the relationship between the provider and the consumer. First, there is the legal agreement between two business entities, and second, there is the technical relationship between the parties that aim to work with each other.
Insights from Supply Chain Innovators: The Wonderful Company, Office Depot
In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept: Businesses depreciate long-term assets for both tax and accounting purposes. The former affects the balance sheet of a business or entity, and the latter affects the net income that they report. Generally the cost is allocated, as depreciation expense, among the periods in which the asset is expected to be used.
3 Requirements of Web Service Matchmaking Symmetry of Information Exchange and Selection The process of finding the right service for a given service consumer is not necessar- ily a one-way process of having the consumer state their requirements and select a winner from the matching services.
The Call for Participation covered the background and goals of the workshop, and explained that attendance was limited and position papers were required. A total of 53 papers were accepted by the program committee and a subset was selected for presentation. The workshop scope included: Description of semantics for Web services and its use for registries, discovery, composition, choreography Ontologies for Web services Specific problem domains: Domain definition and challenges The goal of the first session was to understand the challenges in Frameworks for Semantics in Web services.
Following an Introduction Carine Bournez , three short presentations: A full transcript is available at http: Conceptual model Semantics in Web services focus on how to describe and wrap conventional services that communicate in XML Payne. The needs of different kinds of users give rise to different sets of requirements. There is a need for simple abstractions for the “programmer on the street” Halpin , hiding ontological detail but providing support for integrating Web services into programming languages.
Similarly, end-users have their own requirements, to express their goals so they can find the services they need.
Preference-based Selection of Highly Configurable Web Services
Received Aug 29; Accepted Dec 2. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Modern Web-based Information Systems WIS are becoming increasingly necessary to provide support for users who are in different places with different types of information, by facilitating their access to the information, decision making, workgroups, and so forth.
Design of these systems requires the use of standardized methods and techniques that enable a common vocabulary to be defined to represent the underlying knowledge. Thus, mediation elements such as traders enrich the interoperability of web components in open distributed systems.
Web service contracts can range in content, depth, and complexity. To fully appreciate the intricacies and design options of how Web service contracts can be structured, we first need to decompose this structure in order to understand its individual parts and the .
Daniel Oberle Current middleware solutions, such as application servers and Web services, are very complex software products that are hard to tame because of the intricacies of distributed systems. So far, their functionalities have mostly been developed and managed with the help of administration tools and corresponding configuration files, recently in XML. Though this constitutes a very flexible way of developing and administrating a distributed application, the disadvantage is that the conceptual model underlying the different configurations is only implicit.
Hence, its bits and pieces are difficult to retrieve, survey, check for validity and maintain. The ontology is an explicit conceptual model with formal logic-based semantics. Therefore, its descriptions may be queried, may foresight required actions, or may be checked to avoid inconsistent system configurations. It is a necessary preparation manual for researchers in distributed computing who see semantics as an important enabler for the next generation.
This book is also suitable for graduate-level students in computer science.
Graft to launch the ICO that will help you pay for dinner with cryptocurrencies January 15, — Today, Graft, a global, open sourced, payment gateway blockchain network designed for point-of-sale, announced that it would launch an Initial Coin Offering, or ICO, program to raise funds for the growth of its groundbreaking blockchain-based payments business. The ICO is scheduled to begin on January 18, Moneris, Kount partner to expand fraud protection services for Canadian online businesses January 15, Moneris Solutions Corporation, Canada’s largest processor of debit and credit payments, has joined with Kount to advance their online fraud protection platform that assesses customer transactions in real time.
The Moneris Kount partnership will allow large businesses using the Moneris Gateway to reduce fraud exposure and chargeback risks from online and in-app transactions. Card-not-present CNP transactions are the highest risk for fraudulent payments that affect businesses today — specifically those that do mail order, telephone order or ecommerce transactions.
Purolator anticipates increased shipping activity in following its busiest holiday season yet January 15, After recording its strongest peak season in recent history, Purolator is already seeing high volumes of shipping activity continue into January.
@BULLET Web Service Matchmaking: when more than one Web service satisfies the requested functional requirements, the evaluation of WS contracts allows for .
Resource Allocation and Provisioning services 4. General Requirements The architecture we describe will stand on the shoulders of two emerging technological concepts: Web Services and the Semantic Web. From the semantic web we bring the notion of web published and accessible ontologies and descriptions in terms of these dynamically linked and shared ontologies. However, we must recognize that different communities may not always share ontologies directly, but instead will, in many cases, have different and only partially comparable ontologies covering the same or related concepts.
Complete semantic interoperability may not always be possible, although substantial improvement can be achieved when ontology mappings enable semantic translation between different representations of concepts based on different ontologies. As a result of these considerations and assumptions, our architecture will have the following general requirements:
A framework for QoS-based Web service contracting
It is an opportunity for us to reflect on the language and ideas that represented each year. So, take a stroll down memory lane to remember all of our past Word of the Year selections. Change It wasn’t trendy , funny, nor was it coined on Twitter , but we thought change told a real story about how our users defined Unlike in , change was no longer a campaign slogan. But, the term still held a lot of weight.
Web Service E-contract Establishment Using Features Marcelo Fantinato 1, Web service e-contract establishment can be potentially used in association with any To facilitate the specification of e-contracts and their transfer between BPMSs, XML-.
We recognize the importance of participation by the small business community in the maintenance of our National defense. As touched upon earlier, our acquisition structure is decentralized. To you, this means that your market search, to be effective, may extend beyond the geographical bounds of your city, state, and region. The following guide provides you with what it takes to successfully market your product to the Department of the Navy. You must be registered in the SAM.
SAM is used by anyone interested in the business of the Federal Government, including: Entities contractors, federal assistance recipients, and other potential award recipients who need to register to do business with the government, look for opportunities or assistance programs, or report subcontract information; Government contracting and grants officials responsible for activities with contracts, grants, past performance reporting and suspension and debarment activities; Public users searching for government business information.
SAM is an electronic gateway of procurement information — for and about small businesses. It is a search engine for contracting officers, a marketing tool for small firms and a “link” to procurement opportunities and important information. Therefore, upon registration in SAM.
A History: ’s Word of the Year
Adaptive trade specifications provide a standard format for traders to specify what they want to obtain and what they are willing to give for it, in both qualitative and quantitative terms, as well as constraints and an objective such as maximum profit orminimum price. The standard format of the adaptive trade specifications allows the matchmaking optimization process to find the optimal match between traders.
For example, if a buyer wishes to minimize the price of a desired purchase, subject to certain constraints, the standard format allows location of sellers meeting the constraints and performs one of various types of optimization to match the buyer with one or more sellers. Thus, one or more mutually agreeable transactions can be recommended. Related subject matter is set forth in U.
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It complements crisp logic-based semantic matching of OWL-S services with token-based syntactic similarity measurements in case the former fails. The results of the experimental evaluation The results of the experimental evaluation of OWLS-MX provide strong evidence for the claim that logic-based semantic matching of OWL-S services can be significantly improved by incorporating non-logic-based information retrieval techniques.
Automating the process of B2B partner discovery and contract negotiation is expected to significantly optimise company processes. Numerous existing proposals for discovery follow the approach where service descriptions are expressed by concept expressions in description logics DL , and de Numerous existing proposals for discovery follow the approach where service descriptions are expressed by concept expressions in description logics DL , and description matching is performed by well-known DL inferences.
However, these approaches do not always produce results one might intuitively expect, due to a gap between the formal semantics of service descriptions and human intuition. Furthermore, we show how to correctly map the intuition into description logic constructs. Finally, we investigate different inferences used to realise service discovery.
US20130246326A1 – Automated contract management – Google Patents
It is important to attempt to identify neighboring businesses as well as common areas. Owner Once the physical locations have been identified, it is useful to identify the actual property owner s. This can either be an individual, group, or corporation.
Web services promise universal interoperability and integration of services developed by independent providers to execute business processes by discovering and composing services distributed over.
A key challenge for dynamic Web service selection is that Web services are typically highly configurable and service requesters often have dynamic preferences on service configurations. Current approaches, such as WS-Agreement, describe Web services by enumerating the various possible service configurations, an inefficient approach when dealing with numerous service attributes with large value spaces. We model Web service configurations and associated prices and preferences more compactly using utility function policies, which also allows us to draw from multi-attribute decision theory methods to develop an algorithm for optimal service selection.
In this paper, we present an OWL ontology for the specification of configurable Web service offers and requests, and a flexible and extensible framework for optimal service selection that combines declarative logic-based matching rules with optimization methods, such as linear programming. The overhead, as percentage of total time, decreases as the number of offers and configurations increase.
Categories and Subject Descriptors: On-line Information Services – Web-based services; H. Information Storage and Retrieval – Selection process. Introduction Web service discovery and selection have been extensively studied in recent years. As the set of available Web services may not be known a priori, may change frequently or service requester requirements and preferences may change, the problem of dynamic Web service selection is a fundamental one.
One of the key open challenges is performing dynamic service selection for highly configurable Web services with dynamic user preferences. Web services are typically highly configurable, with significant service customisation possibilities and a choice of quality-of-service QoS properties, e.
Insights from Supply Chain Innovators: The Wonderful Company, Office Depot
A system for selecting a provider service , that fulfils a specification of a service request , the system comprising: The system of claim 1, further comprising an invocation unit configured to invoke the provider service , selected by the selection unit so that a specified set of data is obtained from the provider service , The system of claim 2, further comprising a determiner unit configured to determine a provider service , from one or more invoked provider services based on specified sets of data of the one or more invoked provider services.
The system of any one of the claims 1 to 3, wherein the transformer unit is further configured to transform provider services , into provider sub-concepts , that are concepts of the ontology and sub-concepts of the generic contract The system of any one of the claims 1 to 4, wherein the selection unit comprises a reasoner that is configured to apply subsumption reasoning to subsume a sub-concept of the generic contract. A computer-implemented method for selecting a provider service , that fulfils a specification of a service request , the provider service , being represented by a provider sub-concept , that is a concept of an ontology and a sub-concept of a generic contract , wherein the generic contract is a further concept of the ontology, the method comprising:
This document describes Web Services Agreement Specification (WS-Agreement), a Web Services protocol for establishing agreement between two parties, such as between a service provider and consumer, using an extensible XML language for.
The coming of the Cloud Computing paradigm extends the need to share resources e. This means that a key factor to build complex and valuable business processes among cooperating organizations relies on the efficiency of automate the discovering of appropriate Web services. The increasing availability of Web services that offer similar functionalities requires mechanisms to go beyond the pure functional discovery. This chapter proposes the evaluation of Web service contracts, which define non-functional properties NFPs and applicability conditions associated with Web services, as a solution to automate process composition and enactment.
Today, there is a lack of tools and algorithms that fully support this solution due to several open issues. Second, the lack of standard languages determines heterogeneity in Web service contract specifications raising interoperability issues. Third, Web service contract evaluation is only partially supported by existing discovery engines and composition tools when combining different services from different providers.
This chapter proposes some research efforts on addressing these open issues. Modelling contract management for cloud services. Rule-based policy representations and reasoning. Springer Google Scholar 3.